New Brunswick

November 28, 2012 6:46 am

Pay a visit to the Bay of Fundy in New Brunswick, and you may think your eyes are playing tricks on you. Sometimes you can see boats sitting in mud, far away from the water. But just wait until the tide comes in! Then there’s plenty of water to keep the boats afloat.
Twice a day, the tide of the Atlantic Ocean rises. Each time this happens, 100 billion tons of water pours into the Bay of Fundy. The Bay of Fundy has some of the highest tides in the world!
Facts About New Brunswick
750,000 people
Rank among provinces and territories in population
Major cities
Saint John, Moncton, Fredericton
28,100 square miles
72,900 square kilometers
Rank among provinces and territories in area
Entry into federation
July 1, 1867
Provincial bird
Black-Capped Chickadee
Provincial flower
Wood Violet
New Brunswick is the largest of ’s three Maritime Provinces. Maritime means “close to the sea.” The other two Maritime Provinces are Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.
The waters of the Atlantic Ocean border New Brunswick on three sides. To the east, lie the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of Québec. The capital of New Brunswick is Fredericton. The largest city is Saint John.
The Bay of Fundy runs along the southern coast of New Brunswick. The Saint John River empties into the bay near the city of Saint John. High tide in the bay pushes the water in the river backwards. The rapids and waterfalls flow uphill, creating the Reversing Falls.
The Bay of Fundy narrows to the northeast. All that water has to fit into a smaller entryway. The tide creates high waves. They can rise as high as 6 feet (2 meters).
The tide carries plankton—tiny sea plants and animals—into the Bay of Fundy. Plankton help feed the many fish that live in the bay. Fishing is an important industry in New Brunswick. All along New Brunswick’s rocky coast you can see people fishing and lighthouses to guide the fishing boats. Lobsters, snow crabs, herring, scallops, and shrimp are all caught in the Bay of Fundy.
Atlantic salmon fill streams that drain into the sea. Black’s Harbor has one of the world’s largest sardine canneries.
Its scenic coastline helped New Brunswick earn the nickname The Picture Province. Its natural beauty has also made New Brunswick a tourist destination all year long.
Trees cover most of the province away from the coast. Timber from the central and northern parts of New Brunswick is often floated downstream to mills. Potatoes, apples, and other fruits and vegetables grow in the few areas without forests.
Trails take hikers through the forests and along the coast. There are sandy beaches along New Brunswick’s eastern coast.
Saint John is a busy port on the Bay of Fundy. The bay stays ice-free, and so the harbor at Saint John can remain open all year long.
Saint John is sometimes called the Loyalist City. It was settled by Americans who had remained loyal to Britain during the American Revolution (1775-1783). After the revolution, these “Loyalists” were no longer welcome in the United States. Many fled to Canada.
Saint John grew as a shipbuilding city. Many of the ships built in Saint John brought settlers to North America.
Fredericton, the capital of New Brunswick, also was founded by Americans loyal to Britain. They named it after Frederick Augustus, a son of King George III of Britain. It’s a quiet, pretty city, with tree-lined streets in its center.
There isn’t any Old Brunswick. New Brunswick was named after the house (royal family) of Brunswick. Britain’s King George III headed the house of Brunswick.
New Brunswick was part of the province of Nova Scotia until 1784. That year, the Loyalists convinced Britain to let them form a separate province. They named it after the British king.
New Brunswick was one of the four original provinces that united in 1867 to form Canada. The other three were Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Québec.
New Brunswick’s history as a European colony started in the 1600s, when fur traders and settlers came from France. The French called their colony Acadia. It included Nova Scotia. Until 1763, Britain fought France for control of the colony.
During the conflict with France, Britain asked the Acadians to swear their loyalty to Britain. When the Acadians refused, they were forced to leave. Acadians were allowed to return in 1763, after Britain defeated France in the French and Indian War.
Today, descendants of the Acadian settlers preserve Acadian culture—its food, dance, music, and language. Most of them live along New Brunswick’s northern and eastern shores. At Acadian Historical Village in Caraquet, you can learn about Acadian culture and history. Kids can dress up in clothing from the past, learn to spin wool, and use antique tools.
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